2018 ; № 4
Forecasting Employment and Unemployment in the Conditions of Increasing the Retirement Age
The Object of the Study: Labor market, employment and unemployment
The Subject of the Study: Labor market Forecasting
The Purpose of the Study: Identifying of the impact of increasing the retirement age on the prospective population of working age, employed and unemployed
The main Provisions of the Article: according to the calculations on the methodology of the balance of labor resources, the population of working age will increase significantly, in the conditions of slower growth of the economy's demand for labor, unemployment will increase
Key words: population; demographic forecast; number of employed and unemployed; employment prospects.
Regulating Flexible Forms of Employment in the Republic of Kazakhstan
BERESHEV, S KH
The Object of the Study. Regulation process of flexible forms of employment at the national, sectoral and regional levels in the Republic of Kazakhstan.
The Subject of the Study. Regulation forms of flexible employment in Kazakhstan.
The Purpose of the Study. Identification of the need, possibilities and conditions for legislative and collective-contractual regulation of flexible employment in the Republic of Kazakhstan
The Main Theoretical and Empirical Provisions of the Article. The theoretical and methodological basis of the article is the works of domestic and foreign researchers on problems of the spread of non-standard, unstable and flexible forms of employment (Herrman, P., Stending, G., Bobkov, V., Dzhumambayev S. and others). The research is based on studying and analysing current legislation on this issue, and on the content of system of agreements within the framework of social partnership. The article examines various aspects of regulating flexible forms of employment taking into account the specifics of the labour market in the republic. Features of legislative labour regulating certain workers categories with flexible forms of employment are revealed. Proposals for further improving labour legislation on regulating workers labour under unsustainable employment have been developed.
Key words: flexible employment; legislative regulation; collective-contractual regulation; labour relations; regulations; agreements; self-employed population.
Concept of Anti-Recessionary regulation of the Social and Labor Relations of Insolvent Enterprises in the System of an Economy Clustering
The Object of the Study. Insolvent (pre-crisis, crisis, post-crisis) enterprises in the industries of Russia and clusters in the conditions of their function.
The Subject of the Study. The Social and Labour Relations (SLR) arising during the anti-recessionary regulation of the insolvent (unprofitable) enterprises of the industry.
The Purpose of the Study. The article deals with the problems of forming the concept of anti-recessionary regulation of the SLR of insolvent enterprises in the system of an economy clustering.
The Main Provisions of the Article. The relevance of a research is caused by the need to address the insolvency of the enterprises of the industry of Russia, their conclusion to an effective trajectory of development. The hypothesis of a research consists that the connection of financial economic opportunities of business, sciences, educations, the institutes and authorities joint in the corresponding cluster of a certain territory, including insolvent structures, allows to overcome their crisis state. Authors offer the concept of anti-recessionary regulation of the SLR of insolvent enterprises in the system of an economy clustering. The approaches offered in the article allow to present the structure of the concept, that comprises: the mission, goal, tasks, object, categories of occupied and employers, subject domains and results, their characteristics given. The attention is paid to the fact that for anti-recessionary regulation of the SLR, along with hired workers, considering the corresponding clusters, their governing bodies including at least a level of a municipal formation and also business owners and business executives – employers, assets owners and conditions of cluster production, calling to resist to crisis tendencies actively is very important. Basic provisions and conclusions of article could be used as a theoretical, methodological and practical basis and opposition, as well as anticipation to emerging the insolvent enterprises in the industry of the country. The formulated recommendations of transformation of the branch regulation into a territorial and branch regulation could be reference points for state policy on development of regional economy through the integration of crisis structures, research and educational organizations, high-tech productions, institutes of development and the state (municipal) power authorities. That will give a powerful impulse for modernizing the anti-recessionary reproduction and at the same time growth of competitiveness of the former insolvent enterprises in the conditions of their clustering in concrete regions.
Keywords: the concept; social and labour relations; anti-recessionary regulation; a crisis; a risk; a system; an integrated approach; individual and cumulative workers; a cluster; financial stability; insolvency.
The Efficiency of Municipal Expenditure and Quality of Work of Local Authorities in the Context of the Interests of Civil Society
The Object of the Study. Budget policy of the municipality.
The Subject of the Study. Assessment of the effectiveness of local budget expenditures, the activities of local authorities and society as participants in the budget process and budget policy.
The Purpose of the Study. Carrying out the analysis and giving an assessment of efficiency of municipal expenses and activity of local governments of the city district. Determining the priorities of budget policy in the interests of civil society in order to improve the quality of life of the population.
The Main Provisions of the Article. The article deals with theoretical and practical aspects of assessing the effectiveness of municipal expenditures and the activities of local authorities. Certain aspects of the budget process of the municipality in terms of the implementation of the local budget of Barnaul including the regulation and implementation of municipal target programs, as well as the participation of civil society in the implementation of the budget policy of the municipality have been revealed. In addition, a comparative assessment of the local budget expenditures of Barnaul with the budgets of other cities of the Siberian Federal district in the context of functional areas, as well as per capita is given. The analysis has shown the ambiguity of the structure of expenditures of local budgets, revealed a number of problems of management of municipal finances and made it possible to identify positive developments in the implementation of the municipal budget policy of the city of Barnaul.
Keywords: municipal expenses; a local budget; cost-effectiveness; a target program; initiative budgeting.
The Current Position of Young People of the «New Working Class» in the Labour Market of the Ural Federal District
The Object of the Study. Youth of the «new working class».
The Subject of the Study. Employment of young people of the «new working class» in the labour market.
The Purpose of the Study. Basing on the analysis of statistical databases of youth employment of the UrFO’s «new working class» to show the specifics of the situation and the main problems of employment of that social group in the labour market.
The Main Provisions of the Article. The article contains the analysis of the young people’s employment of the Ural Federal Okrug on the basis of data from monitoring surveys of micro-farms related to employment, conducted by the Higher School of Economics together with the Rosstat. The peculiarity of this analysis is the first attempt to show the situation in the regional labor market not in the whole social group (youth), but only in a certain part of it, based on the concept of the «new working class». Under this concept we mean a group of employees engaged in all areas of material production and services whose work is routinized, divided into standardized segments, amenable to an algorithmization and a quantitative regulation of the results and who are not involved into the management and have no ownership rights in the system they work in. The analysis of youth statistics of the " new working class " in the Ural Federal Okrug was carried out in three age groups (15-19 years - employment needed, 20-24 - combining study and work, and 25-29 – a transition between study-work) in two periods – 2010 (an economic recovery after the crisis of 2008-2009) and 2015 (the beginning of the economic recession).
The article shows the differences between the youth employment in 2010 and 2015 in the Ural Federal Okrug, taking into account the area of residence of respondents (city/village) by age and gender groups. The paper considers the prevalence of informal and flexible employment as well as the level of education among economically active and inactive youth.
Two trends in the economic behaviour of young people in the labour market are identified: first, in due course preferences of educational trajectories towards longer ones, with a higher level of education are formed. Second, young people enter the labour market later. The special features of the employment of young people in the «new working class» also include the high involvement in informal employment of the youngest groups of workers. That is connected with low wages, worse and dangerous working conditions, an exception from the legal terrain of labor relations’ regulation.
Keywords: youth; labor market; employment; new working class.
Problems of the Debt Load of the Population of Russia and the Altay Kray
IL’YINYKH, YU M
The Object of the Study. Organizational and economic relations arising between commercial banks and individuals in the process of crediting.
The Subject of the Study. Crediting the population of Russia.
The Purpose of the Study. Studying the problem of crediting the population of Russia and the inhabitants of the Altay Kray.
The Main Provisions of the Article. The authors have analyzed the credit indebtedness of individuals both in Russia as a whole and in the Siberian Federal Okrug, the volume and share of overdue debt of citizens in particular. Particular attention in the study has been paid to the level of credit burden of the population of Russia and the Altay Kray, the reasons for the crediting of the population of the Altay Territory were investigated. The article gives an assessment of the consequences of population crediting, analyzing the changes in per capita cash income of the population, the average monthly nominal wage of citizens of the Altay Okrug is given. To solve the problems associated with crediting the population, measures such as increasing the financial literacy of the population and improving the living standards of the citizens has been proposed.
Keywords: loan indebtedness of individuals; per capita income of the population; credit load; commercial banks; financial literacy; average loan payments.
Economic Culture and Financial Mechanism
The Object of the Study. Economic culture.
The Subject of the Study. The economic culture of the world finance market.
The Purpose of the Study. Demonstrating the financial mechanism of exploiting Russia, its citizens and developing countries disguised as free market economy models.
The Main Provisions of the Article.
Economic culture is an important part of common personal culture. There are three interrelated levels of people’s economic behaviour. The basis of economic behavior is an “economic person” wishing to achieve maximum usefulness. Theoretical development of a more perfect category characterizing a person’s economic activity has not caused any changes in their practical behavior. Today, the category “human capital” functions to a certain degree only on microeconomic level and its practical use is connected not with the necessity of a person’s development but with the necessity of income growth from economic use of this very person. The economic person continues to function on all the other levels of economic activities. It is, connected with the fact that financial and economic mechanisms regulating the behaviour of market agents on macro and mega levels, have already been formed and are used with the category of economic person. Credit, stock and currency markets exist as the system of command and exploitation of small economies. Every element of financial market is used to redirect the value created in the developing countries to the leading economic powers. Not only the financial system itself, but also the educational system of undeveloped countries, existing market models, international agreements and clustering countries have been organized for the diversion of this created value. Russia’s peculiarities are that the monetary authorities of the country submit to the interests of leading economic states. Many elements of economic culture are apparently of a fictitious and declarative nature, hiding the essence of economic and financial relations, which are still on the level of an economic person. Current economic culture does not meet the interests of contemporary society. It is necessary to transform economic and financial mechanism so that it should not destroy spirituality and nature of a person and contribute to harmonious development of both particular regions of the world and human civilization as a whole.
Keywords: economic culture; financial market; economic person; human capital; knowledge; megalevel; market subjects.
Technological Prerequisites for the Transformation of the Sphere of Labor
ODEGOV, YU G
The Object of the Study. Changes in the nature and content of work caused by the 4th industrial revolution.
The Subject of the Study. Changes in the field of labor due to technological changes in production.
The Purpose of the Study. o study the changes that occur in the content of labor and the structure of the labor force under the influence of the 4th industrial revolution, which was noted in the report of the Director General of the ILO at the 104th session (2015). "The century's initiative for the future of the world of work".
The Main Provisions of the Article. The analysis of changes in the nature and content of labour due to the 4th industrial revolution is given. It is stressed that changes in the sphere of labour caused by technological changes in production are characterized by the multiplicity of technologies used. The main directions of providing high-quality labour force in the conditions of gradual transition to a new technological structure and in the light of specific recommendations of the ILO concerning the future of the labour sphere are defined.
Keywords: industrial revolution 4.0; technological structure; human labour; content of labour; changes in the structure of labour force.
Kulturvitalizm – a Conceptual Basis for Assessing The Effectiveness of Management and The Optimal Combination of The Level and Quality of Life of The Population of Siberia
The Object of the Study. Kulturvitalizm.
The Subject of the Study. Features of the conceptual basis for assessing the effectiveness of management and the optimal combination of the level and quality of life of the population of Siberia.
The theoretical side of the subject: the conceptual basis for substantiating the role of cultural wisdom for assessing the effectiveness of management and the optimal combination of the level and quality of life of the population.
The empirical side of the subject: an expert poll on the importance of culturalism for the creation, development and use of the Eurasian ideology in Russia to improve the quality of life of the population.
The Purpose of the Study. The goal is to identify the experts' opinion on the role of culturalism in assessing the effectiveness of management and the optimal combination of the level and quality of life of the population.
The main theoretical and empirical provisions of the article. At the beginning of the article the authors outlined the factors that actualize the subject of the research results. In the article, the authors, firstly, represent the basic positions of culturalism as a modern social and humanitarian metatheory; secondly, they emphasize the importance of considering the development of the vitalistic model of modern social scientific knowledge, the paradigm of its special and branch theories developing on the basis of culturalism. They describe the results of expert surveys in two regions of Siberia regarding the importance of cultural wisdom for comprehending and solving the problems of ensuring a decent level and quality of life for the population of modern Russia. The authors analyze the assessments of the expert community of the regions of Siberia on the importance of culturalism for the study of the social sphere. At the same time they emphasize the demonstration of the differentiation of expert assessments of the importance of culturalism for the creation, development and use of the Eurasian ideology of the beginning of the XXI century.
Key words: culturalism; control; the quality of life; the vital forces of man.
Working Class in Soviet and Russian Sociological Discourse
The Object of the Study. The correlation of class and stratification approaches in Soviet and post-Soviet sociology.
The Subject of the Study. New working class in Russian sociological discourse.
The Purpose of the Study. The objectives are to substantiate the necessity of actualizing of the class approach in the study of modern Russian society social structure; identifying the signs of a new working class.
The Main Provisions of the Article. In accordance with Marxist ideology, in Soviet sociology a working class was regarded as a protagonist of social change and a center of attraction for the forces of social change. The contemporary integration of workers into the capitalist system, the transition to the economy of the sixth order, the defeat of socialism, the global transition to a postindustrial society require to comprehend the «working question» from a new prospective. The authors actualize the problem of revealing the content and structure of the «new working class», traditional and actual methods of its theoretical conceptualization. The features of class and stratification approaches to the allocation of the working class in the structure of society have been studied. It has been shown that the excessive specification of criteria, non-critical declarative positioning of the middle class into the basis of the Russian society structure, led to a high degree of uncertainty in the model of the social structure of the Russian society of the early XXI century. The author's definition of the concept of a new working class has been given. Defining “the new working class of modern Russia”, we mean a group of employees in all spheres of material production and services whose content and nature of work are routinized and segmented; not participating in management and not having the property rights to the enterprise in which they work. Most of the times, these are workers without higher education. Power and control in the organization do not belong to them, their degree of freedom and authority in organizational structures are limited, they do not influence on the planning and control of labor.
Keywords: Russian society; social structure of society; working class; stratification approach; class approach; characteristics of the working class.
Supported Living of Disabled People as Innovative Practice of Social Service (by the Results of the Study at the Altay Kray in 2017–2018)
The Object of the Study. Supported living of disabled people.
The Subject of the Study. Supported living of disabled people with disabilities as an innovative practice of social service.
The Purpose of the Study. Identifying resources and difficulties of implementation of supported living of disabled people as an innovative practice of social service at the Altay Kray.
The Main Provisions of the Article. The resources and difficulties of implementation of supported living of people with disabilities as an innovative practice of social service at the Altay Kray on the bases of the study results are analyzed. The survey and interview of specialists of regional social agencies and non-profit organization rendering services for disabled people were conducted in 2017 – 2018. Respondents were disabled adults and their legal representatives living at the Altay Kray. On the basis of the study results the main problems of implementation of supported living of disabled people as an innovative form of a living arrangement of disabled people at the Altay Kray are identified. There is insufficient awareness about the practice of either experts or disabled people, their legal representatives; lack of federal and regional legal regulation in the field of the supported living of disabled people; absence of the experts trained in the field of the supported living, etc. On the basis of the study results the resources of implementation of supported living of disabled people have been also identified. There is the understanding of importance of practice implementation in the Kray by both the specialists of regional social agencies and non-profit organization as disabled adults and their legal representatives. The main directions of optimization of implementation of supported living of disabled people as innovative practice of social service at the Altay Kray are described.
Keywords: supported living; disability; social service of disabled people; living arrangement of disabled people; the Altay Kray.
Municipal Social Policy Realization: the Role of Scientific Research (by the Results of the Study in Barnaul, Altai Kray)
The Object of the Study. Municipal social policy.
The Subject of the Study. The role of scientific research in realizing municipal social policy.
The Purpose of the Study. Identifying the role of scientific research in realizing social policy at the municipal level.
The Main Provisions of the Article. The main theoretic methodological and philosophy approaches to the science integration to the social policy realization are analyzed. There is the substantiation of the efficiency of the scientific potential use in the social policy implementation at the local level. Scientific achievements and innovations involvement in solving social problems of the city of Barnaul are considered through the implementation of the grant mechanism of interaction in the municipality. A special contribution of the authors is the analysis of legislation in the field of grant support for research projects, monitoring the efficiency of the competition, as well as the correlation of the results of the grant competition with the directions of social policy at the city level (based on the results of monitoring the implementation of grant forms of support in the city in the period from 2014 to 2017). The main problems have been identified that make it difficult to use the potential of science in the implementation of social policy of the city, namely the lack of strong and extensive network of grant competitions in this area, the "frozen" amount of funding for the competition and weak differentiation in the degree of scientific experience among applicants for the grant. According to the study results the place and role of scientific research in the implementation of the activities of local governments in the city of Barnaul in order to implement social policy have been defined, as well as recommendations to improve this activity for the city management developed.
Keywords: social policy; municipality; scientific research; grant support; science; social effect; young scientists.
Emulation and Competition as the Forms of Interaction of the Subjects of Professional Activity
The Object of the Study. Competition and Competition
The Subject of the Study. Competition and competition as a form of interaction between subjects of professional activity
The Purpose of the Study. Competition and competition as a form of interaction between subjects of professional activity
The main Provisions of the Article.
The authors reveal the features of manifestation of socialist emulation and competition in connection with the social structure of the state and the system of social relations existing in it and generating them. The distinctive characteristics of socialist emulation and competition as two social phenomena and forms of interaction between subjects of professional activity have been studied. The great importance of socialist emulation in solving important tasks for the state is shown, in the intensification of labour, the achievement of better results in the production of material and spiritual goods, the development of socialist society as a whole, the realization of the interests of society and each of its participants. In the particular the features of socialist emulation are revealed: its essence, functions, forms, basic principles and types of stimulating its participants.
Besides the work reveals the social aspects of competition, its manifestations in society and professional activity in comparison with the socialist emulation. The main approaches to the study of competition as an interdisciplinary phenomenon are presented. The author's understanding of the essence of competition of subjects of professional activity as one of the types of social competition is given. The structure of competition of collective subjects of professional activity, its positive and negative functions, the nature of the course, the main approaches to its management are presented. As the main differences between socialist competition and competition of subjects of professional activity, their differences in motivation, behavior, methods used by them and means of achieving victory are examined. Competition and competition are manageable, both by the state itself, and by the subjects themselves.
The features of the manifestation of socialist competition and competition are connected with the system of social relations existing in the state, which give rise to them. Competition and competition are the most important forms of interaction and relationships between the subjects of professional activity, but having their own manifestations.
Key words: Socialist emulation; competition; subjects of activity.
The Theory of Social Quality as an Innovative Tool for the Study of Society (Reflections on the International Sociological Forum: "Social Quality and Social Governance»)
It is shown that the theory of social quality is developed as a philosophical paradigm in relation to the modern capitalist modernization of the economy today, accompanied by the loss of the "social component". The indicators of social quality allowing to carry out subjective assessment of quality of life not at the individual level, but at the level of country societies are considered. The article describes the results of the international sociological forum "Social Quality and Social Management", held in Beijing, China, in September 2018. The features of the Russian scientific school of studying the level and quality of life formed in the All-Russia Centre of Living Standards, and allowing to measure the level and quality of life in the unity of its objective and subjective characteristics are outlined. The features of noospheric socialism which is a model of sustainable development of society, allowing to combine the development of the theory of social quality and the theory of living standards and quality of life, and developed by Russian scientists belonging to the noosphere scientific school have been analyzed.
Keywords: social quality; socio-economic security; social inclusion; social cohesion; social powers; living standards and quality of life; noosphere socialism; Russian theory of level and quality of life; noosphere scientific school in Russia; international association of social quality.
The Noospheric Sociology of Life Forces, the Wellbeing of Man and Society Is the Conceptual Basis of Social Work in the 21st Century
The Object of the Study. Noosphere sociology.
The Subject of the Study. Features of the noospheric sociology of vital forces, well-being of man and society as a conceptual basis of social work in the XXI century.
The Theoretical Aspect of the Subject. The rationale for noospheric sociology as a new paradigm of social work in the XXI century.
The Empirical Aspect of the Subject. Survey of the Population of 17 Regions of Russia on the Meaning of Life with Justice to Increase the Efficiency of Developing a Vitalistic Model of Social Work in Modern Society.
The Purpose of the Study is to identify public opinion about the meaning of life from justice in modern regions of Russia.
The Main Theoretical and Empirical Provisions of the Article. The authors identified the factors that actualize the consideration of the topic of the article. The authors, first, reveal the features of social protection of the population in the world social space in the second half of the twentieth century, justifying the thesis that vitalist sociology plays an integrative role in shaping the vitalist model of social work. Sociological support is characteristic not only for Russian, but also for foreign theory and practice of social work. Secondly, at the beginning of the 21st century, the mission of social work in the world changes from social assistance to social well-being. At the same time, the authors note that social culture today involves a variety of forms and scales of ensuring the social wellbeing of a person and society in various historical and socio-cultural contexts. This is confirmed by the results of population polls in 17 regions of Russia regarding the meaning of life and justice. Thirdly, on the basis of an analysis of the results of these surveys, the authors substantiate the need to use noospheric sociology as a conceptual basis for developing a vitalist model of social work in the conditions of the formation of a noospheric civilization of controlled socio-natural evolution. At the same time, they emphasize that the basic research method of noospheric sociology as a science is the principle of determining the nature of the interaction of the vital forces of man and society with the space of their existence in specific sociohistorical, natural and socio-cultural conditions.
Keywords: noospheric sociology; vitalist sociology of social work; social well-being.
Middle Сlasses in the Сapitalist Russia (Presentation of the Scientific Monograph)
Precarious Employment in the Russian Federation: Theory and Methods of Identification, Evaluation and the Vector of Decreasing (Presentation of the Scientific Monograph)