№ 2  (212) / 2019

 

ECONOMIC RESEARCH

The Socially Acceptable Consumption Basket

BOBKOV, VYACHESLAV NIKOLAYEVITCH

Doctor of Economics, Professor, Honoured Science Worker of the Russian Federation, Head of the Laboratory of Problems of Living Standards and Quality of Life at the Institute of Socio-economic Studies of Population Russian Academy of Sciences, Chief Research Worker of the Scientific School «Human Resource Management» at G V Plekhanov Russian University of Economics

Email: bobkovvn@mail.ru

 GULYUGINA, ALEVTINA ALEKSANDROVNA

PhD in Economics, Deputy Editor-in-Chief of the journal «Living Standards of the Population in the Regions of Russia»

Email: algula@mail.ru

 ODINTSOVA, YELENA VALER’YEVNA

PhD in Economics, Leading Research Worker of the Laboratory of Problems of Living Standards and Quality of Life at the Institute of Socio-economic Studies of Population Russian Academy of Sciences

Email: odin_ev@mail.ru

 SAFRONOVA, ANNA MIHAJLOVNA 

PhD in Biology, Senior Research Worker of the Laboratory of Nutrition Epidemiology and Genodiagnostics of Alimentary-dependent Diseases of FSBSI «FRC of Nutrition and Biotechnology»

Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 

 Abstract

The Object of the Study. Quality of life of low-income population

The Subject of the Study. Consumer basket of subsistence minimum as a social standard of quality of life of low-income population

The Purpose of the Study. Development of the methodological basis for the formation of a socially acceptable consumer basket of the subsistence minimum.

The Main Provisions of the Article. Currently, in Russia, the society faces large-scale tasks dictated by the taken course for breakthrough scientific, technological and socioeconomic development of the country, enshrined in the decree of the President of the Rossiyskaya Federatsiya No. 204 of 07.05.2018. The Designated national projects are aimed at qualitative changes in the living conditions of the population, the creation of conditions for increasing life expectancy, maintaining a healthy lifestyle, education of a harmoniously developed and socially responsible person, in particular. A large role is allotted to up-to date technology and highly qualified personnel, which implies the availability of human resources at the appropriate level.

The achievement of these goals requires a new approach to the standards of quality of life of the population, which act as criteria and instruments of state social policy. The current methodology for determining the subsistence level is based on limited access to food, non-food products and services. Despite the fact that regular reviews of the consumer basket, carried out in accordance with Russian legislation, have brought some positive qualitative changes, the subsistence minimum can not act as a full-fledged social standard of quality of life. The transition from the normative approach to the definition of the consumer basket to the calculation approach, when only the minimum product set remained normative, has also had a negative impact since 2013.

Today, we need a different, namely, socially acceptable current consumption standard, which would allow us to respond to the challenges of our time. The methodological basis of a socially acceptable consumer basket should be based on a normative approach to all its constituent sets – food, non-food goods and services. It should take into account domestic and foreign experience in the formation of regulatory consumer baskets for low-income population, the possibilities of the Russian consumer market of goods and services to meet the needs of the population, consumer behaviour and consumer expectations in a market economy.

Keywords: methodology; a normative approach; a minimum living wage; the socially acceptable consumption basket; the structure of the consumer basket; a minimum consumption budget.

 

Minimum Wage Guarantee in Russiya and Its Regions

 MIGRANOVA, LA.

PhD in Economics, Leading Research Worker, Institute of Socioeconomic Studies of Population, Russian Academy of Sciences

Еmail: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 Abstract

The Object of the Study: Payment for work in the Rossiykaya Federatsiya

The Subject of the Study: The minimum wage rate and dynamics in Rossiya and RF subjects

The Purpose of the Study: Estimating the minimum wage substance in different periods of the socio-economic development of the country and  identifying the reasons for different approaches to the minimum wage setting in regions.

The Main Provisions of the Article.  Minimum wage is a social guarantee of payment for work of employees that is set according to the tripartite agreement between the State, employers and trade unions representing the interests of employees. In the Rossiyskaya Federatsiya the substantive estimation of the minimum wage is based on its ratio to the amount of the subsistence minimum of able-bodied population. In international comparisons the most common statistical indicator for calculation of the sufficient minimum wage is the minimum wage ratio to median wage (Kaitz index) and average wage.

The minimum wage dynamics in Rossiya is analyzed by four periods. Each of them reflects the socio-economic situation in the country. The first period (1992 - 1999) was characterized by formation of market relations accompanied by economic crisis and high inflation. The second one  (2000 - mid-2008) – by a gradual normalization of the socio-economic situation and economic growth. During this period were adopted the laws that in subsequent years affected the situation with minimum wages in regions. The third (late 2008 - early 2018) – by periodically recurring crises in the economy. The fourth one started in May 2018 when the wage at the Federal level was set at 100% of the subsistence minimum of the able-bodied population of Rossiya in the second quarter of 2017. The authors consider in detail the situation in these years in the RF subjects with different natural climatic conditions. They conclude by saying that the notion of minimum wage in the legislation should be clearly defined as well as  the criterion of its economic substance – subsistence minimum-should be changed.

 Keywords: a minimum and average wage; a subsistence minimum of able-bodied population; a regional wage coefficient and wage increment.

 

The Scale, Factors and Mobility and Stability Motives in The Labour Market 

TOKSANBAYEVA, MS

Doctor of Economics, Head of Laboratory of Problems

of  Distribution Relations, Institute of Socioeconomic Studies

of Population, Russian Academy of Sciences

Email: matoksan@mail.ru

 Abstract

The Object of the Study. Employed population

The Subject of the Study. Mobility and stability in the labour market

The Purpose of the Study. Analysing  the processes of mobility and stability in the labour market in the aspect of effective regrouping of labour resources

The Main Provisions of the Article. In the conditions of structural transformations of the economy, the role of interfirm mobility of workers should increase. It is important that this process contributes to the improvement of the quality characteristics of the labour force. In many ways, this is achieved by increasing the reserves of human capital, but a change of work can counter this. It is known that stable employment with long-term labour relations are preferable for the growth of workers' qualifications. Moreover, interfirm mobility sometimes leads to a decrease in the quality of human potential. The analysis of these processes, their dominant trends, factors and motives was based on our theoretical and applied studies of the segmented (dual) labour market. In accordance with them, the labour market is divided into segments with high-quality and mass labour resources. The information base was provided by official statistics and an expert survey of workers, conducted at the Institute for Socioeconomic Studies of the Russian Academy of Sciences using the qualitative interview method. As a result of the analysis, it was revealed that mass resources are more mobile in the labour market, which is rarely accompanied by an improvement in their quality. This mainly applies to workers with low qualifications. They quit due to unattractive work and poor work-related security. For skilled workers, preference is more preferable than stable employment, but with good earnings and working conditions, for the sake of improvement of which they are ready to change jobs, but without changing their profession. At the same time, the processes of high mobility of specialists, whose professions allow working in various fields of activity (information technologies etc), have also been opened. It has been established that so far the increase in the level of employment of high-quality labour resources is limited by low rates of structural transformations of the economy.

Keywords:  labour resources, a labour market; employment; mobility; stability; quality of labour resources.

 

The Methodological Basis for Identifying and Estimating Precarity of Non-standard Employment

 BOBKOV, VYACHESLAV NIKOLAYEVITCH

Doctor of Economics, Professor, Honoured Science Worker of the Russian Federation, Head of the Laboratory of Problems of Living Standards and Quality of Life at the Institute of Socio-economic Studies of Population Russian Academy of Sciences, Chief Research Worker of the Scientific School «Human Resource Management» at G V Plekhanov Russian University of Economics

Email: bobkovvn@mail.ru

 ODINTSOVA, YELENA VALER’YEVNA

PhD in Economics, Leading Research Worker of the Laboratory of Problems of Living Standards and Quality of Life at the Institute of Socio-economic Studies of Population Russian Academy of Sciences

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 Abstract

The article is devoted to the methodological foundations of identifying and assessing the precarity of non-standard employment.

The Object of the Study is workers in precarious employment.

The Subject of the Study is the production relations that characterize the economic and social situation of workers due to the development of flexible forms of employment. The Theoretical Aspect of the Study is the methodological basis for identifying the precarity of non-standard employment. The Empirical Aspect of  the Study is the assessment of the spread of precarity of employment through the measurement of its indicators with the allocation of the level of precarity of non-standard forms of employment.

The Purpose of the Article is ordering the conceptual apparatus of the study of precarious employment in the context of the interaction of production relations and the productive forces of up-to-date societies and  assessing  the impact of non-standard employment on the prevalence of precarity of employment.

The Main Theoretical Provisions of the Article are associated with the methodological foundations of identification of the precarity of non-standard employment.

The Empirical provisions are aimed at assessing the level of indicators of precarious employment caused by the development of non-standard employment.

 

Keywords: standard employment; non-standard employment; sustainable employment; precarious employment; flexible employment; stable employment; formal employment; informal employment; indicators of precarious employment; employment profiles.

 

Underutilization of Labour Force: Methodological Approaches to Measurement and Statistical Analysis

 CHERNYKH, YeA

PhD in Economics, Senior Research Worker, Institute of Socioeconomic Studies of Population,  Russian Academy of Sciences

Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 Abstract

The Object of the Study. The problem of underutilization of labour force in the context of the present-day  labour market.

The Subject of the Study. Category of underutilization of the labour force: indicators, components, methodological aspects of formation and measurement.

The Purpose of the Study. Calculating the components of underutilization of labor force in the Russian Federation. Identify the sociodemographic characteristics of people falling into the category of underutilization of the labour force.

The Main Provisions of the Article. The author has revealed methodological approaches to the measurement of underutilization of labour force, the quantitative and qualitative aspects of this phenomenon, analyzed international statistics using ILO data, Rossiyskaya Federatsiya conducted calculations of the components of underutilization of labour in the Rossiyskaya Federatsiya using Rosstat microdata, identified the key sociodemographic characteristics of the people in the category of underutilization of labour (potential labour force, working insufficient hours and people with insufficient or excessive education), and outlined the key problems of underestimation of this phenomenon.

Keywords: underutilization of labour force; unemployment; underemployment in terms of working time; potential labour force; employment; a level of education; an excessive level of education

 

 

Factors of Poverty of Families with Children and Prospects of Its Reduction

YELIZAROV, Valeriy VLADIMIROVICH

Scientific Head and Leading Researcher of the Centre for Population Studies of the Faculty of Economics,  Lomonosov Moscow State University. GSP-1, Leninskie Gory, Moscow, 119991, Russian Federation

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 SINITSA, ARSENIY LEONIDOVICH

Research Worker of the Laboratory for Economic Education of the Faculty of Economics, MV Lomonosov Moskva  State University

Faculty of Economics, 1/46 Leninskiye Gory, Moskva 119991, Rossiyskaya Federatsiiya

Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 Abstract

The authors consider the data of Rosstat, which characterize the poverty of households and families with children in the country as a whole. The analysis was carried out taking into account the demographic characteristics of families and households, since they have a significant impact on poverty rates. The expenditures of families and households with children, income and its purchasing power of families with children, features of employment and unemployment of women with children, and living conditions of families with children are considered.

The Object of the Study are families with children.

The Subject of the Study is the poverty of families with children.

The Purpose of the Study. Study of indicators on living conditions of families with children, and determining the main factors of poverty.

The Main Provisions of the Article. Families with children are one of the most needy groups of the population, since their income is usually not sufficient to maintain an acceptable standard of living. Families with children make up the majority of all the poor.

In recent years, the poverty of families with children has increased in many ways (for example, the number of poor families and their share among all poor people has increased, their income deficit has risen, irrespective of the fact that the employment of women with children in pre-school age has also increased). This indicates the lack of progress in addressing this important social problem, such as reducing poverty in families with children.

The article highlights the main factors that hinder the improvement of living standards for families with children.

The most important factor is the number of children in the family, as well as their age. There are more poor people in the families with a large number of children and families with children under the age of three. This is partly due to the low level of development of the network of preschool institutions, as well as  to low incomes, since in such families women's employment is low. The second important factor is the fact of living in rural areas, where the birth rate is higher and the quality of life is lower. The third factor is the number of adults in the family (including those who are older than working age) who have incomes. The poverty of families with children is primarily influenced by demographic factors, the significance of which is especially high caused by low wages and small amounts of state benefits.

The study will provide a better understanding of the nature and consequences of poverty of families with children in regions with different socioeconomic indicators and develop a differentiated system of measures aimed at improving their standard of living, taking into account these differences, including taking into account regional features. Further studies of the factors and extent of poverty will help to objectively assess the possibilities of influencing various factors and, in fact, the prospects for reducing poverty.

Keywords: poverty; a low income; poor households; families with children; family policy; social policy; social support; a subsistence minimum.

 

Dynamics and Prospects of Public Procurement System Development

 RYAZANTSEV, II

Vice-Rector of LM Sechenov First Moskva State Medical University

Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 Abstract.

The Object of the Study.  Government Procurement

The Subject of the Study.  Dynamics and prospects of developing  the public procurement system

The Purpose of the Study Analyzing the possibilities of the public procurement system to become more convenient for small and medium businesses.

The Main Provisions of the Article. The dynamics and prospects of developing the system of state and municipal procurement in Russia as well as the possibilities of achieving the provisions of the Presidential Decree in this area have been analyzed.

Keywords: a contract system; state and municipal procurement; budget spending efficiency; a Presidential Decree; small and medium-sized businesses

 

SOCIOLOGICAL RESEARCH

Russian Values in the Context of Digitalization of the Russian Economy

 FOMICHYOVA, TV.

PhD in, Sociology, Associate Professor, Chair of Sociology, Russian State Social University, Moscow

Email: fomitchevatv@mail.ru

 KATAYEVA, VI.

PhD in, Sociology, Associate Professor, Chair of Management and Administration, Russian State Social University, Moskva

Email: orileader@gmail.com

 Abstract

The article is a retrospection of the ideas of digitalization and the subsequent possible transformation of the value consciousness of Russians.

The Object of the Study is the values of Russians.

The Subject of the Study is the values of Russians in the context of digitalization.

The Purpose of the Study is penetrating the process and possible social consequences of the implementation of the programs "Digital Economy of the Rossiyskay Federatsiya" and "Strategy of National Security of the Rossiyskaya Federatsiya until 2020". Replacing traditional sociocultural and moral values of Russians with instinctive ones max happen as a result of active digitalization in the most negative development of events. The article records the fact of the forming of new digital (information) values of the population of the Russian society in the context of the values of traditional culture. A simulation of a number of actualized values of the present-day Russian society is noted. The author analyzes innovations and the social consequences of digitalization for the population of Rossiya, the dynamics of the process of introducing digital technologies into the life of Russian society. The main problems of inclusion of digitalization in everyday life of Russians have been designated.

Sociologists observe the process of the formation of values over the centuries, and yet the variability of value consciousness depends largely on the types of social interaction. In many ways, the conditions of existence in the digital age regulate the specificity of social life in general. The digital age presupposes a high capacity for social adaptation of various segments of the population. Digitalization and the formation of a new values system and value orientations in the digital environment can be especially relevant and significant for the young Russians. New technologies, means of communication, opportunities provided by new standards of service - all this predisposes to a change in the traditional value system of Russians. Difficulties with the introduction of digital technologies are observed in remote rural regions of the country

The Main Provisions of the Article: digitalization brings new values; changes in the value paradigm often determine the conditions for the existence of society as a whole; The digital age forms the new value paradigm of the Russians.

Ключевые слова: ценности; социокультурные ценности россиян; эпоха цифрового общества; цифровизация; цифровизация экономики; социальные последствия.

Keywords: value; sociocultural values of Russians; the era of digital society; digitalization, digitalization of the economy; social consequences.

 

PHILOSOPHIC RESEARCH

Socionomics as a Scientific Basis for the Development of the Concept of Social State Development

SHARKOV, FELIX IZOSIMOVICH

Doctor of Sociology, Professor, Honoured Science Worker of the Rissiyskaya Federatsiya, Vice-rector for Science of the Academy of Labour and Social Relations, Deputy Dean of the Faculty of Journalists, Russian Academy of National Economy and Public Service, Professor,

Moskva State Institute of International  Relations, Russian Foreign Ministry

Email: This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

 Abstract

The Object of the Study. The concept of development of the social state.

The Subject  of the Study.  Socionomics formed as an interdisciplinary trend in sociology, and considered as a theoretical basis for the development of the concept of the social state.

The Purpose of the Study  is presenting the possibilities of socionomics for the scientific substantiation of the foundations of the social state and the development of the concept of its development.

The Main Provosions of the Article. Socionomics is presented as an interdisciplinary trend  in sociology, and considered as a theoretical basis for the development of the concept of social state. Socionomics is considered a “scientific trend in sociology, the subject of which is the study of the system of laws, theories, categories, methods, techniques common to all Humanities in order to create a unified theoretical and methodological science. In Rossiya, the basic concepts of the social state, social policy, the activities of the relevant authorities, the totality of social rights and obligations are developed within the scientific framework of socionomics. On the basis of analyzing the genesis of socionomics its possibilities for scientific substantiation of bases of the social state and development of the concept of its development are opened. The author's socionomic paradigm provides other researchers with a conceptual basis for conducting research on the problems of the social state at the intersection of sociology, political science, law and economics. The preliminary model of the concept of development of the social state has been described.

Keywords: a social state; social state models; concepts of the welfare state; socionomics.

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